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Ever since Nitric oxide (NO) was discovered it has been the most studied molecule as it had so much diversity in its biological function based on organ and site specificity. It has been evolved as an important physiological mediator involved in cellular signaling in the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, respiratory and nervous system. It’s failure to be in normal range have been indicated as a cause of various diseases. The drug designing and its therapeutic efficacy is based on the production and inhibition of NO. The main areas of its involvement are in neurotransmission, nonspecific immunity and inflammatory response and its regulation in blood pressure.
It has both beneficial and deleterious effects, of which beneficial effects includes the inhibition of leukocyte adhesion, protection against tumor necrosis factor, and also its role an as antioxidant such as offering protection against hydrogen peroxide, and many more. Its deleterious effects include the cytotoxic effects, inhibition of enzyme functions, induction of DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, etc. On the basis of enormous work that has been done on NO’s , presumes it as a double edge sword mediator, which has beneficial physiological effects as well as detrimental pathological effect making its development into a drug quite challenging. So there is a tremendous potential in the field of NO research, so that NO can be further regulated by pharmaceuticals and can be further exploited for treatment using NO or the regulators of NO.
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