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Abstract: It is now well-established that calcium (Ca2+) is a critical regulator of myocardial function and that abnormalities in cardiomyocyte intracellular Ca2+ dynamics contribute to pathophysiologic changes observed in several cardiac diseases, including cardiac hypertrophy, chronic heart failure, and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Although Ca2+ plays a key role in maintaining cardiac excitation–contraction coupling, it is increasingly apparent that changes in myocardial Ca2+ also contribute to the regulation of normal and pathological signal transduction that controls myocyte growth, hypertrophic signaling, mitochondrial energetics, and transcriptional gene expression. Interestingly, experimental evidence suggests that these multifarious Ca2+-dependent responses are spatially and temporally mediated by distinct cellular Ca2+ pools (ie, microdomains), which are generated by diverse channels and molecular signals with widely differing timescales of activation. These concepts are discussed in this review, as well as the emerging role of microRNAs in cardiac remodeling and myocardial Ca2+ dynamics.
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