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Abstract: Since the early 2000s, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has increasingly gained consensus in bariatric surgery, thanks to good to excellent results in terms of weight loss and comorbidity resolution, and to simpler technical aspects than in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and biliopancreatic diversion. In yearly consensus summits, surgical indications, technical details, and management of complications, together with continuous update of data concerning clinical outcome, have been debated on the basis of increasing collective experience. In experimental studies and clinical trials, the pathophysiological mechanisms of weight loss and remission of cardiometabolic comorbidities subsequent to sleeve gastrectomy have been extensively discussed. The aim of this paper is to offer a review of state of the art laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and to focus attention on the currently most debated topics and future prospects of this procedure.